Characterization and Future Distribution Prospects of “Carciofo di Malegno” Landrace for Its In Situ Conservation


Pedrali D., Zuccolo M., Giupponi L., Sala S., Giorgi A.


“Carciofo di Malegno” is a little-known landrace of Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus cultivated in Camonica Valley (northern Italy). The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of this landrace were investigated; furthermore, a species distribution model (MaxEnt algorithm) was used to explore its ecological niche and the geographical area where it could be grown in the future. Due to its spiky shape, “Carciofo di Malegno” was distinct from any other artichoke sample considered, and it appears to be similar to those belonging to the “Spinosi” group. The concentration of chlorogenic acid (497.2 ± 116.0 mg/100 g DW) and cynarine (7.4 ± 1.2 mg/100 g DW) in “Carciofo di Malegno” was comparable to that of the commercial cultivars. In “Carciofo di Malegno,” luteolin was detected in a significant amount (9.4 ± 1.5 mg/100 g DW) only in the stems and in the edible parts of the capitula. A MaxEnt distribution model showed that in the coming decades (2040–2060s), the cultivation of this landrace could expand to the pre-Alps and Alps of Lombardy. Climate change may promote the diffusion of “Carciofo di Malegno”, contributing to preservation and the enhancement of this landrace and generating sustainable income opportunities in mountain areas through exploring new food or medicinal applications.

agro-biodiversity; Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus; outline analysis; Camonica Valley; chlorogenic acid; cynarine; species distribution models; MaxEnt; Southern Alps
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